History Timeline

500 BCEConfucian philosophy gives a low status to trade and foreigners.
500 BCESiddhartha Gautama starts Buddhism on India/Nepal border.
326 BCE – 323 BCEAlexander The Great, Lord of Asia, conquers as far east as Sogdiana and Ferghana in Uzbekistan.
206 BCEStart of China’s Han Dynasty, ends 220 CE
146 BCE – 51 BCEAmbassador Zhang Qian explores Central Asia for Han Emperor and establishes Silk Road trade.
30 BCEQueen Cleopatra dies, Egypt becomes a Roman Provence
324Roman Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople and the Byzantium Empire. Th focus for the development of world civilisations shifts to Asia.
410Fall of Rome to the Visigoths
618-907China’s Tang Dynasty
622Prophet Muhammed establishes Islam.
832Bagdad House of Wisdom starts 300 years of Islamic scientific leadership.
1070Doomsday Book Published.
1095-1099First Crusade restores Anatolia to Byzantium from the Seljuk Turks.
c1111Al-Ghazali’s “The Revival of the Religious Science” puts faith above science & is adopted by Sunnis & by Thomas Aquinas in the 13th C. – halts scientific enquiry.
1206-1368Genghis Khan (1206-1227) founds Mongol Empire, which in 1241 destroy half of Hungary.
1271-1295Marco Polo’s voyages.
1258Sacking of Baghdad by Mongols and end of Abbasid Caliphate.
1325-1354Explorer Ibn Battuta visits all Muslim lands & writes a travel book.
1326-1644China’s Ming Dynasty
1370-1507Timurid Empire, Timur reigned 1370–1405.
1405-1433Admiral Zheng He’s treasure ships are the world’s most powerful navy.
1453Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans.
1492Christopher Columbus discovers South America.
1498Vasco da Gama reaches India.
1526-1707Mughal Empire founded by Babur. By1605 empire extends to most of India.
1543Nicholas Copernicus marks start of the “European Scientific Revolution”.
1547Ivan the Terrible becomes first Tsar of Russia.
1588England defeats Spanish Armada.
1600Limited Stock English East India Company (EIC) formed.
1602-1682Dutch EIC exports 6 million items of Chinese porcelain to Europe.
1620Voyage of the Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower.
1632-1653Shah Jahan, 5th Mughal ruler, builds Taj Mahal.
1700,1721Britain’s Calico Acts ban import of cotton textiles.
1744-1767The period when Clive of India was in India and establishing British dominance.
1775-1783American War of Independence.
1893-1896Britain’s Opium Wars trigger China’s Century of Humiliation.
1893The end of “The Great Game” sees Afghanistan linked to China via the Wakhan Corridor to provide a buffer between Russia and British India.